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迭代器模式(Iterator)

3.3.1. 目的

让对象变得可迭代并表现得像对象集合。

3.3.2. 例子

  • 在文件中的所有行(对象表示形式的)上逐行处理文件(也是对象)

3.3.3. 注意

PHP 标准库 (SPL) 定义了一个最适合此模式的接口迭代器!往往也需要实现 Countable 接口,允许在迭代器对象上使用  count($object)  方法。

3.3.4. UML 类图

file

3.3.5. 代码

你可以在 GitHub 上找到这些代码

Book.php


<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator;

class Book
{
    /**
     * @var string
     */
    private $author;

    /**
     * @var string
     */
    private $title;

    public function __construct(string $title, string $author)
    {
        $this->author = $author;
        $this->title = $title;
    }

    public function getAuthor(): string
    {
        return $this->author;
    }

    public function getTitle(): string
    {
        return $this->title;
    }

    public function getAuthorAndTitle(): string
    {
        return $this->getTitle().' by '.$this->getAuthor();
    }
}

BookList.php


<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator;

class BookList implements \Countable, \Iterator
{
    /**
     * @var Book[]
     */
    private $books = [];

    /**
     * @var int
     */
    private $currentIndex = 0;

    public function addBook(Book $book)
    {
        $this->books[] = $book;
    }

    public function removeBook(Book $bookToRemove)
    {
        foreach ($this->books as $key => $book) {
            if ($book->getAuthorAndTitle() === $bookToRemove->getAuthorAndTitle()) {
                unset($this->books[$key]);
            }
        }

        $this->books = array_values($this->books);
    }

    public function count(): int
    {
        return count($this->books);
    }

    public function current(): Book
    {
        return $this->books[$this->currentIndex];
    }

    public function key(): int
    {
        return $this->currentIndex;
    }

    public function next()
    {
        $this->currentIndex++;
    }

    public function rewind()
    {
        $this->currentIndex = 0;
    }

    public function valid(): bool
    {
        return isset($this->books[$this->currentIndex]);
    }
}

3.3.6. 测试

Tests/IteratorTest.php


<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator\Book;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator\BookList;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator\BookListIterator;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Iterator\BookListReverseIterator;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class IteratorTest extends TestCase
{
    public function testCanIterateOverBookList()
    {
        $bookList = new BookList();
        $bookList->addBook(new Book('Learning PHP Design Patterns', 'William Sanders'));
        $bookList->addBook(new Book('Professional Php Design Patterns', 'Aaron Saray'));
        $bookList->addBook(new Book('Clean Code', 'Robert C. Martin'));

        $books = [];

        foreach ($bookList as $book) {
            $books[] = $book->getAuthorAndTitle();
        }

        $this->assertEquals(
            [
                'Learning PHP Design Patterns by William Sanders',
                'Professional Php Design Patterns by Aaron Saray',
                'Clean Code by Robert C. Martin',
            ],
            $books
        );
    }

    public function testCanIterateOverBookListAfterRemovingBook()
    {
        $book = new Book('Clean Code', 'Robert C. Martin');
        $book2 = new Book('Professional Php Design Patterns', 'Aaron Saray');

        $bookList = new BookList();
        $bookList->addBook($book);
        $bookList->addBook($book2);
        $bookList->removeBook($book);

        $books = [];
        foreach ($bookList as $book) {
            $books[] = $book->getAuthorAndTitle();
        }

        $this->assertEquals(
            ['Professional Php Design Patterns by Aaron Saray'],
            $books
        );
    }

    public function testCanAddBookToList()
    {
        $book = new Book('Clean Code', 'Robert C. Martin');

        $bookList = new BookList();
        $bookList->addBook($book);

        $this->assertCount(1, $bookList);
    }

    public function testCanRemoveBookFromList()
    {
        $book = new Book('Clean Code', 'Robert C. Martin');

        $bookList = new BookList();
        $bookList->addBook($book);
        $bookList->removeBook($book);

        $this->assertCount(0, $bookList);
    }
}

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